The effect of presowing treatment with electromagnetic radiation (EMP) of the millimeter-wavelength range and microconcentrations of epine and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on the composition of black cumin seed oil was studied. The experiment was carried out with seeds obtained in the harvests of 2014—2016 years. Extraction of oil from black cumin seeds was carried out in Soxhlet apparatus. The qualitative and quantitative compositions of the oil were determined by GC and GC-MS methods. It was found that oil from Nigella sativa grown in Belarus contained myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, eicosadienic acids (FA), and thymoquinone, p-cymene, g-terpinene, carvacrol, thymol, yunipen, (+)-isomenthol. The content of unsaturated fatty acids has varied depending on the year of cultivation and the type of presowing treatment from 75.3 to 78.9 % of the total quantity of compounds. Maximum amount, in percentage, was accounted for linoleic acid (56.4—61.9 %), followed by oleic acid (13.4—16.8 %), eicosadienic (2.8—3.6 %) and linolenic acid (0.36—0.68 %). It was established that chemical presowing treatment increased content of thymoquinone and p-cymene in Nigella sativa L. seeds, while the physical one decreased amount of these compounds in relation to control plants. The relation between the content of thymoquinone and the mode of exposure to electromagnetic radiation was found. In order to improve the quality of black cumin oil, it is suggested to use presowing treatment with ALA in 10-6 % concentration which allows to increase thymoquinone content.
Keywords: Nigella sativa L., millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation, 5-aminolevulinic acid, epin, fatty acids, thymoquinone, p-cymol
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