In the review, on the basis of literature data, as well as the results of own research, the relationships between photosynthesis and the nitrogen status of a plant organism in the aspect of the problems of agricultural plants productivity and quality formation have been analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the main cereal — wheat. The distribution of nitrogen between the components of the photosynthetic apparatus and the efficiency of its use in the process of CO2 assimilation are considered. It is shown that nitrogen use efficiency during photosynthesis in new high-intensive wheat varieties is higher than in the variety of the earlier selection. The features of the reallocation of nitrogen between the wheat plants organs in the process of maturation in relation with assimilation rate, productivity and grain protein content are highlighted. It has been demonstrated that in the formation of the latter, the efficiency of the nitrogen-containing compounds remobilization from vegetative organs, as well as the maintenance of the roots absorptive capacity after flowering, are of crucial importance. Stimulation of the assimilation rate with foliar feeding favors the latter. Such treatment improves in wheat plants the overall nitrogen use efficiency for grain forming, both accumulated in the shoot before flowering and introduced into the soil. It is noted that the problem of nitrogen use efficiency increasing in the source-sink system of cultivated plants has two components. First, the effectiveness of its use in physiological processes, primarily in photosynthesis. Secondly — the completeness of remobilization into storage tissues during maturation, which determines the production quality. There are certain contradictions between these components, on the solution of which both by genetic and technological ways the attention of researchers is focused.
Keywords: nitrogen, photosynthesis, remobilization, wheat, productivity, quality
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