Fiziol. rast. genet. 2024, vol. 56, no. 2, 95-129, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2024.02.095

Wholemeal products — the world's health strategy

Rybalka О.І.1,2, Morgun V.V.2, Polyshchuk S.S.1, Chervonys M.V.1, Morgun B.V.2,3, Sokolov V.М.1

  1. Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute — National Center of Seed and Cultivars Investigation, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine  3 Ovidiopolska Rd., Odesa, 65036, Ukraine
  2. Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 31/17 Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
  3. Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine  148 Akademika Zabolotnoho St., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine

The data of wheat bran compounds composition, bran biochemistry, bran properties as well as physiological effects on the human’s organism some of the individual bran compounds and their synergy in terms of positive influence on the human health are reviewed. Overwhelming majority of valuable for human health compounds of wheat grain accumulated in the outer grain layers such as bran, aleurone layer and germ. They are all presenting together the milling fraction of technological bran, that are screened out separately while grain processing, and used as feed for animal. Refined white flour with bran removed loose from 50 % to 90 % valuable for health vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds thereby needed to be artificially fortified by vitamin and mineral additives. Reasonable alternative to refined white flour is a wholemeal flour with no bran separation that keeps untouchable all of the valuable grain nutrients. Numerous scientific and clinical research of the whole wheat grain and wheat bran compounds have evidenced their positive effect on human health, and argued the necessity potentially to get rid of the white flour wheat products and considerably enhancing preferable consumption of the wholemeal products in the worldwide population diet. In 2017 in Vienna the 6-th International Wholemeal Summit has accepted the special Wholegrain Initiative (WIG) coordinated by International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC). Within the body of WIG the array of international programs aimed on the wholemeal wheat and other cereal products popularisation were approved. The review gives comprehensive characteristics of the wheat bran composition including important for health ingredients such as insoluble and soluble fibre, polyphenol acids, vitamins and minerals, bioactive peptides, powerful antioxidants protecting human organism against such kind of destructive pathologies like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, at ctr. The review describes a new prospective trend in the modern world breeding aimed at improvement of the wheat bran and wheat grain nutritional status by development of coloured wheat cultivars with blue, purple and black grain. The grain colour caused by flavonoid pigments anthocyanins widely presented in coloured fruits and berries such as blueberry, bilberry, strawberry, and possessing a very high antioxidant activity comparable with the strongest antioxidants. Considerable attention focused also on the wholemeal flour fermented products. Lactobacillus fermentation drastically ameliorates the nutritional value of the wholemeal flour and flour-derived food products due to activation of fermented reactions resulting in biosynthesis of new bioactive compounds as well as neutralising of the antinutritional and toxic exogenous contaminants. The review contains the author’s recommendations for the new scientific and technological research of the wholemeal flour and flour-based products in Ukraine, development of the new wheat cultivars possessing the functional food status, enforcement of the healthy wholemeal food production as well as active popularization of the wholemeal products in the populations, enhancement of the wholemeal products consumption in the human’s healthy nutrition.

Keywords: wheat, wholemeal products, bran, coloured grain, healthy nutrition

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2024, vol. 56, no. 2, 95-129

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