For the formation of food security in Ukraine and the world, it is important to increase the productivity of major crops — wheat, corn, sunflower, etc., as well as to ensure the presence of sufficient quantities of minerals and vitamins in human nutrition through the introduction of Actinidia fruit species. The limiting factor of widespread introduction of Actinidia species is limited frost resistance. In order to determine the peculiarities of the influence of low temperatures (—20, —25, —30 °C), their influence on the structural parts of the shoots: bark, cambium, wood, heartwood — of two forms of French selection — female (two forms) and male (one) was established. It was shown that the aboveground parts of plants of both forms of culture show sensitivity to low temperatures, but the most vulnerable in the experiment were the parenchymal core tissues of the shoot, which form a pool of assimilates to ensure plant development and the formation of generative organs. In the experiment, male Actinidia plants were more resistant to low temperatures. Their level of resistance in total was 3.0—3.3 points higher compared to the varieties of female forms, in which the corresponding figure in variant 4 was 37.0, and 37.6. The highest level of damage (3.8 points) in the female form was observed in the variety Isai in the same variant (—30 °C) on cuts through the bud. It was found that plants of any variety, which were in the experiment, did not suffer the highest degree of damage — 6 points, at which there is a complete death, which indicates their endurance under growing conditions in the research area of the region of Ukraine. The results of laboratory studies of frost resistance of A. arguta forms indicate the possibility of widespread introduction of this species in the southern regions of Ukraine.
Keywords: frost resistance, laboratory freezing, shoots, buds, critical tissue damage
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