Fiziol. rast. genet. 2022, vol. 54, no. 5, 429-449, doi:

The effect of drought at flowering stage on the dynamics of accumulation and remobilization of reserve water-soluble carbohydrates in stem segments of winter wheat varieties contrasting in drought resistance

Tarasiuk M.V., Stasik О.О.

  • Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 31/17 Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine

Remobilization of reserve stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) is an important resource of carbon for grain filling. The study of the dynamics of WSC accumulation and remobilization in different stem segments under well-watered conditions and short-term drought stress was carried out on plants of winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties Podolyanka (drought-resistant, ecologically plastic), Astarta (high-yielding), and Natalka (sensitive to drought, high-protein content in grain) in the pot experiment. A drought stress for 7 days at a soil moisture content 30 % of the field capacity (FC) was applied by limiting watering at the anthesis (BBCH 61—69) with soil moisture in the control at 60—70 % of the FC. The specific content in dry matter and the total amount (product of specific content and mass) of WSC in different parts of the stem of the main shoot were determined during the period of reproductive development and at full ripeness when plants were harvested. The stem was divided into peduncle, penultimate and the lower (combined third, fourth and fifth) internodes and the combined leaf sheaths. The amount of remobilized WSC was estimated as the difference between their maximum and residual amounts at full ripeness. It was established that the Podolyanka variety accumulated a greater amount of WSC than the Natalka and Astarta varieties both under optimal and stress conditions. Under optimal irrigation, the main part of reserve stem WSC were accumulated during 17 days after the beginning of flowering. Drought significantly reduced the total amount of deposited WSC in the stem, although it increased their specific content at the onset of stress, accelerated remobilization, and shortened the period of WSC accumulation in stems of Astarta and Natalka varieties until the 8th day after the beginning of flowering. Stress did not change the temporal characteristics of the WSC dynamics in stem segments of the Podolyanka variety. In general, the amount of deposited WSC in the stem was closely positively correlated with the photosynthetic rate (r = 0.917), however, under optimal irrigation, the increased accumulation of WSC in the Podolyanka variety was not associated with greater photosynthetic activity. The highest levels of specific content and the largest amounts of deposited and remobilized WSC under both irrigation regimes were found in the penultimate and lower internodes. The content of WSC in these internodes was most closely positively correlated with grain yield per plant (r = 0.534—0.693) and 1000 grains weight (r = 0.778—0.897), which allows us to consider them the most representative for estimating the storage capacity of the stem.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., stem water-soluble carbohydrates, depositing capacity, internodes, drought, photosynthesis, grain yield

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2022, vol. 54, no. 5, 429-449

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