The peculiarities of growth processes, leaves formation, their mesostructure, photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, as well as productivity of sweet pepper plants under the impact of synthetic analogues of growth stimulant hormones, and retardants, which differ in mechanisms of action, were studied. It was shown that treatment with growth stimulants increased, and gibberellin inhibitors — decreased the linear size of sweet pepper plants Antey variety. It was found that 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP), gibberellic acid (GA3) and tebuconazole (EW-250) increased the number of leaves on the plant, while under the treatment by ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, 2-CEPA) and chloromequate chloride (ССС-750) this index was lower than the control, and the action of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA) did not change it. All growth stimulants, and retardants EW-250 and CCC-750 increased the leaves, stems and roots fresh weight, as well as the dry mass of the whole plant, while the treatment with 2-CEPA reduced them. All growth regulators (except 2-CEPA) increased the average leaf area and the total leaf area on the plant during the fruit formation stage. Gibberellin inhibitors and 6-BAP significantly increased the amount of chlorophyll in pepper leaves. Under the action of GA3 this index decreased, and the treatment by 1-NAA did not significantly change it. 2-CEPA, EW-250, CCC-750, and 6-BAP thickened the pepper leaves chlorenchyma. Under the action of all growth substances (except 1-NAA) the columnar parenchyma cells volume increased, and under the influence of GA3, 6-BAP and EW-250, the spongy parenchyma cells size increased also. Growth promotors 1-NAA and GA3, and retardants EW-250 and CCC-750 significantly reduced the number of stomatal cells on leafe surface, and treatment by 6-BAP and 2-CEPA showed a tendency to reduce them. Photosynthesis, photo- and dark respiration rates showed a steady tendency to increase under the action of growth substances (except GA3), while transpiration, on the contrary — to decrease. In general, treatment with growth substances (except 2-CEPA) intensified the flowering of plants and increased their economic productivity. The use of 6-BAP and EW-250 was the most effective.
Keywords: Capsicum annuum L., pepper, growth promotors, retardants, morphogenesis, leaf apparatus, mesostructure, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, respiration, productivity
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