For the purpose of development anti-resistant herbicide compositions for the protection of winter wheat crops, field trials of weed control efficiency and crop selectivity were performed during three growing seasons, when tank mixtures of herbicides diflufenican, carfentrazone and metribuzine were applied in the autumn at the stage of 2—3 leaves. For comparison as a standard, herbicides Marathon (pendimethalin, 250 g/l + isoproturon, 125 g/l) and GF-2202 (diflufenican, 100 g/l + florasulam, 3.75 g/l + penoxsulam, 15 g/l) were used. Weed control was found to be most effective throughout the growing season with application of a triple mixture of diflufenican, metribuzin, and carfentrazone. The use of carfentrazone increased the effectiveness of protection exactly in the autumn, because in the spring and summer the action of a mixture of diflufenican with metribuzin and complex herbicide GF-2202 was not inferior to the action of the triple mixture. In the 2018—2019, the use of herbicides was not effective due to low weediness, but the trend of winter wheat grain yield increase with herbicides was evidence of their crop selectivity. Manifestations of phytotoxic effects on the culture were observed only in autumn 2020 in variants with the use of carfentrazone alone and in mixtures. The phytotoxic effect of carfentrazone was the appearance of chlorotic spots on the leaves of winter wheat plants shortly after treatment. However, this effect of carfentrazone did not affect the further growth and development of winter wheat and the formation of grain yield. The highest values of grain yield in the experiments of 2019—2020 and 2020—2021 were obtained in variants using a mixture of diflufenican with metribuzin, triple mixture of diflufenican, carfentrazone and metribuzin, as well as with the application of complex herbicides GF-2202 and Marathon. It was concluded that when used in autumn in winter wheat, the tank mixture of diflufenican with metribuzin and triple tank mixture of diflufenican, metribuzin and carfentrazone are not inferior to the effectiveness of protection against weeds and yield preservation of the complex herbicides GF-2202 and Marathon. The main advantage of using mixtures of diflufenican with metribuzin, and a triple mixture of diflufenican, metribuzin and carfentrazone over the complex herbicide GF-2202 is that the use of these mixtures provides high efficiency of winter wheat protection without the use of herbicides ALS inhibitors. It has been stated that the use of diflufenican and metribuzin herbicides, and triple mixture of diflufenican, metribuzin and carfentrazone in winter wheat crops in autumn is an effective means of preventing the emergence of herbicide-resistant biotypes of weeds including weed biotypes resistant to ALS inhibitors.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., herbicides, resistance, diflufenican, metribuzin, carfentrazone
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