The effect of short-term heating on ultrastructure of the pea chloroplasts and the spectral characteristics of the subchloroplast fragments has been investigated. The size of chloroplasts decreased at heating for 5 min in the darkness at either 25, 35 or 45 °C. The phenomenon was caused mainly by a decrease of the length of long axis of chloroplast. The extent of the reduction was less after the heating at 45 °C in the presence of light. Detailed analysis has been conducted for heating at 45 °C because more prominent changes in circular dichroism (CD) spectra have been observed indicating the greater effect of heating. A decrease in y-bands of the spectrum has indicated a disturbance in long range ordering in arrangement of membrane macrodomains. The quantity of grana with an increased number of thylakoids (more than 6) became greater after the heating of isolated chloroplasts. Low temperature fluorescence spectra of chloroplasts showed a decrease in intensity of both bands of the spectrum. The spectra of subchloroplast fragments corresponding to the grana particles revealed an increase in intensity of both bands. An increase of the short-wavelength band belonging to emission of PSII, indicates an increase of quantity of PSII in grana particles originated from heated chloroplasts. An increase of the long-wavelength band belonging to PSI emission, was caused by an increasing of the size of antenna, that was detected by the rise of intensity in excitation spectrum of fluorescence detected at 735 nm. A broadening of short-wavelength band which was greater after the heating in the presence of the illumination was evoked by a loosening of the PSII complex antenna. An analysis of the spectral characteristics of the fragments of the granal thylakoids margin region provided additional data about the changes in the grana organization caused by heating. The obtained data are in line with the hypothesis that links changes in the organization of the thylakoid membranes to the interaction between PSII and the «mobile antenna» represented by light-harvesting complex II (LHCII). It has also been demonstrated that illumination mitigates the effect of short-term heating.
Keywords: Pisum sativum L., short-term heating, chloroplasts ultrastructure
Full text and supplemented materialsFree full text: PDF
1. Hu, S., Ding, Y. & Zhu, C. (2020). Sensitivity and Responses of Chloroplasts to Heat Stress. Plants Front. Plant Sci. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00375
2. Wang, Q.-L., Chen, J.-H., He, N.-Y. & Guo, F.-Q. (2018). Metabolic reprogramming in chloroplasts under heat stress in plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 19, No. 4, p. 849. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030849
3. Mathur, S., Agrawal, D., & Jajoo, A. (2014). Photosynthesis: response to high temperature stress. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol., 137, pp. 116-126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.01.010
4. Sharkova, V.E. & Buobolo, L.S. (1996). Effect of Heat Shock on the Arrangement of Thylakoid Membranes in the Chloroplasts of Mature Wheat Leaves. Rus. J. Plant Physiol., 43, pp. 358-365.
5. Kisliuk, I.M., Buobolo, L.S., & Vaskovskii, M.D. (1997). Heat Shock-induced Increase in the Length and Number of Thylakoids in Wheat Leaf Chloroplasts. Rus. J. Plant Physiol., 44, pp. 30-35.
6. Cseh, Z., Rajagopal, S., Tsonev, T., Busheva, M., Papp, E. & Garab, G. (2000). Thermooptic effect in chloroplast thylakoid membranes. Thermal and light stability of pigment arrays with different levels of structural complexity. Biochemistry, 39, pp. 15250-15257. https://doi.org/10.1021/bi001600d
7. Kochubey, S.M. (2010). Changes in antenna of photosystem II induced by short-term heating. Photosinth. Res., 106, pp. 239-246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11120-010-9599-8
8. Kochubey, S.M., Shevchenko, V.V. & Kazantsev, T.A. (2013). Changes of the antenna of Photosystem I induced by short-term heating. Biochemistry (Moscow) Suppl. seria A: Membr. Cell Biol., 7, pp. 67-77. https://doi.org/10.1134/S199074781205008X
9. Janka, E., Korner, O., Rosenqvist, E. & Ottosen, C.-O. (2013). High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (dendranthema grandiflora). Plant Physiol. Biochem., 67, pp. 87-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.02.025
10. Kalituho, L.N., Pshybytko, N.L., Kabashnikova, L.F. & Jahns, P.P. (2003). Photosynthetic apparatus and high temperature: role of light. Bulg. J. Plant Physiol. Special iss, pp. 281-289.
11. Kisliuk, I.M., Buobolo, L.S., Bykov, O.D., Kamentseva, I.E. & Sherstniova, O.A. (2008). Protective and Injuring Action of Visible Light on Photosynthetic Apparatus in Wheat Plants during Hyperthermia Treatment. Rus. J. Plant Physiol., 55, pp. 613-620. https://doi.org/10.1134/S102144370805004X
12. Bondarenko, O.Yu. (2010). Changes of pea leaves chloroplasts size induced by short-term heating. Physiology and Biochemistry of Cultivated Plants (in Russian), 42, pp. 79-83.
13. Kochubey, S.M., Bondarenko, O.Yu. & Shevchenko, V.V. (2007). A new type of subchloroplast fragments isolated from pea chloroplasts in the presence of digitonin. Biochemistry (Moscow), 72, pp. 1021-1026. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0006297907090155
14. Kochubey, S.M. & Samokhval, E.G. (2000). Long-wavelength chlorophyll forms in Photosystem I from pea thylakoids. Photosynth. Res., 63, pp. 281-290. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006482618292
15. Kochubey, S.M. (2001). Organization of the marginal regions of the pea granal thylakoids. Rus. J. Plant Physiol., 46, pp. 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016662332636
16. Dekker, J.P. & Boekema, E.J. (2005). Supramolecular organization of thylakoid membrane proteins in green plants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 1706, pp. 12-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2004.09.009
17. Ford, R.C., Stoylova, S.S. & Holzenburg, A. (2002). An alternative model for photosystem II/light harvesting complex II in grana membranes based on cryo-electron microscopy studies. Eur. J. Biochem., 269, pp. 326-336. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0014-2956.2001.02652.x
18. Garab, G., Faludi-Daniel, A., Sutherland, J.C. & Hind, G. (1988). Macroorganization of chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting complex in thylakoids and aggregates: information from circular differential scattering. Biochemistry, 27, pp. 2425-2430. https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00407a027
19. Barzda, V., Mustardy, L. & Garab, G. (1994). Size Dependency of Circular Dichroism in Macroaggregates of Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes. Biochemistry, 33, pp. 10837-10841. https://doi.org/10.1021/bi00201a034
20. Garab, G. (1996). Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis. In: Amesz, J., Hoff, A. (eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 11-40.
21. Shevchenko, V.V. (2011). The light of low intensity protects Photosystem II from inhibition at short-term heating. Physiology and Biochemistry of Cultivated Plants (on Russian), 43, pp. 527-532.
22. Baginsky, S. (2016). Protein phosphorylation in chloroplasts - a survey of phosphorylation targets. Journal of Experimental Botany, 67, pp. 3873-3882. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw098
23. Zhang, R., Cruz, J.A., Kramer, D.M., Magallanes-Lundback, M.E., Dellapenna, D. & Sharkey, T.D. (2009). Moderate heat stress reduces the pH component of the transthylakoid proton motive force in light-adapted, intact tobacco leaves. Plant. Cell and Environment, 32, pp. 1538-1547. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.02018.x