The need for effective control of Fusarium pathogens in agrophytocenoses is an unsolved complex problem of crop production in Ukraine. The use of fungicides in composition with fertilizers, first of all, trace elements — components of redox homeostasis and amino acids, in our opinion, can increase the effectiveness of control of Fusarium pathogens. The aim of the work was the determination of mycotoxins in the grain of high-yielding varieties of winter wheat under the influence of fungicides in compositions with trace elements and amino acids. Analytical studies on the determination of mycotoxins in the grain were performed using Ridascreen® test systems (R-Biopharm AG, Germany). Comparing the two high-yielding varieties of winter wheat by the levels of mycotoxin accumulation, it was established that the semi-dwarf wheat Smuglyanka accumulated more mycotoxins in the control, without treatments with fungicides and fertilizers, than the grain of the medium tall variety Podolyanka. Probably, this may indicate a higher resistance of the Podolyanka variety to damage by pathogens of Fusarium species. If the content of T-2 toxin in the grain of Podolyanka variety was slightly less than its content in the grain of Smuglyanka, the desoxynivalenol (DON) content was almost 2 times lower, and the zearalenone (ZEA) content in the grain of Podolyanka was not detected by ELISA with Ridascreen® test systems. The treatment of plants of both wheat varieties with fertilizer — a composition of trace elements and amino acids — did not affect the levels of accumulation of DON and ZEA, and the T-2 toxin content in both varieties tended to decrease. When the Alto super fungicide was applied, the levels of mycotoxin accumulation in the wheat grain of both varieties remained almost unchanged. This action is consistent with a low level of control of Fusarium pathogens by this fungicide. The use of the composition Alto super 330 EC, 0.5 l/ha + Brexil mix, 0.5 kg/ha + Megafol, 2.0 l/ha was accompanied by a decrease in the content of T-2 toxin and DON; the content of ZEA remained at the level of the control and the variant with the fungicide without fertilizer. In the case of Amistar extra 280 SC, KS, 0.7 l/ha and Magnello 350 EC, CE, 1.0 l/ha, the content of DON decreased in the grain of both wheat varieties, and the content of T-2 toxin and ZEA did not change. Adding to these fungicides fertilizers Brexil mix, 0.5 kg/ha + Megafol, 2.0 l/ha provided a reduction in the content T-2 toxin. The ZEA content in grain is almost the same in all the variants of the experiment, which indicates, above all, the high resistance of both wheat varieties to damage by pathogens that have compounds with estrogenic activity synthesized in the secondary metabolism. With a low background ZEA in the grain in the control and test options, it is difficult to determine the role of trace elements in suppressing the synthesis of compounds with estrogenic activity and, accordingly, the effect on grain contamination with ZEA mycotoxin. Thus, the use of the fungicides can reduce the content of mycotoxins dangerous for humans and domestic animals in the grain of highly productive varieties of winter wheat. The use of trace elements — components of plant redox systems that form plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and nitrogen in the form of amino acids in foliar treatments in compositions with fungicides enhances their effectiveness in reducing the mycotoxin content in the grain.
Keywords: Fusarium L., grain damage, mycotoxins, fungicides, microelements, amino acids
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