The accumulation and remobilization of water-soluble carbohydrates in different parts of the stem of main shoot of winter wheat varieties Podilska Niva, Yednist and Zbruch, which were included in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine in 2018, 2008 and 1994, respectively, were studied. The stem was divided into parts: the leaf sheaths of the two upper internodes, the two upper internodes without leaf sheaths, the leaf sheaths of the other lower internodes and the lower internodes without leaf sheaths. The content of water-soluble carbohydrates was determined in the stage of flowering (GS 65), milk ripeness (GS 77) and full ripeness of the grain. The storage capacity was defined as the amount of remobilized water-soluble carbohydrates, calculated by the difference between their maximum and final total amount in the stage of full ripeness. It was found that the newer varieties Podilska Niva and Yednist had higher maximal levels of specific water-soluble carbohydrates content in most parts of the stem compared to the older variety Zbruch. The newest high-yielding variety Podilska Niva surpassed significantly the varieties of the earlier selection Yednist and Zbruch by stem storage capacity, and variety Zbruch outstriped Yednist due to the greater mass of dry matter. In the variety Podilska Niva, stored carbohydrates accumulated mainly in the lower internodes of the stem, while in Yednist and Zbruch varieties — in the upper ones. The contribution of sheaths to the total stem storage capacity was twice less than that of the culm parts in Zbruch and Yednist and three times in Podilska Niva. Grain weight of spike correlated positively with the maximum total amount of water-soluble carbohydrates in the stem (r = 0.98) and the amount of remobilized carbohydrates (r = 0.95). The obtained data indicate the importance of improving the stem storage capacity for further selection to increase the yield of winter wheat.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., stem storage capacity, parts of shoot, water-soluble carbohydrates, grain productivity
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