Fiziol. rast. genet. 2021, vol. 53, no. 6, 484-500, doi:

Strategies for increasing alphatocopherol content in plants

Mokrosnop V.M., Zolotareva E.K.

  • M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 2 Tereshchenkivska St., Kyiv, 01004, Ukraine

The main ways of obtaining a-tocopherol (a-T) is through chemical synthesis and the extraction of a-T from plant oils. A widely used synthetic form called all-rac-a-tocopherol consists of mixing eight stereoisomers with part of natural stereoisomer RRR-a-tocopherol only 12.5 %. Natural a-T is 1.5 times more active than synthetic forms, that is why the search for effective sources of natural a-T continues. Plant oils such as sunflower, maize, rapeseed and soybean are the main sources of natural commercial vitamin E with low activity due to low level of a-T content in seed oils. Much research has been done that shows stimulating of a-T production in plant cells by changing cultivation conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, nitrogen level, temperature, and type of carbon nutrition etc. Stress conditions all stimulate the accumulation of antioxidants in the photosynthetic organisms, but can also restrict their normal growth rate. Gene engineering allows for the creation of plants with high a-T content by introducing the coding sequences (CDS) of significant genes of tocochromanol synthetic pathway into a nuclear genome of transgenic plants. cDNA with CDS of key enzymes of the a-T synthesis, such as homogentisate geranylgeranyl transferase (HGGT), tocopherol cyclase (TC), g-tocopherol methyltransferase (g-MTM) from rice, soybean, maize, carrot etc., are used to enhance the total tocochromanol content and improve tocopherols composition. Application of the combination of biotechnology techniques, genetic engineering and optimization of cultivation conditions, greatly stimulates the accumulation of a-T in photosynthetic organisms.

Keywords: a-tocopherol, vitamin E, tocochromanol, biotechnology, transgenic plants

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2021, vol. 53, no. 6, 484-500

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