The question of expediency and efficiency of application of microbial preparations in technologies of cultivation of agricultural crops made on the basis of active strains of nodule bacteria was observed and their role in providing plants with biologically fixed nitrogen was characterized. Information on the prevalence, benefits and prospects of using the chemical method of plant protection against pathogens, phytophagous and weeds in agrophytocenoses was presented. Peculiarities of pesticide evaluation according to a number of ecotoxicological indices are highlighted. Data on the effects of individual active substances and mixed chemicals on the viability and reproduction of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms in pure culture were presented. It was shown that severity of these effects depends on the purpose, mechanisms of action, the nomenclature of artificially synthesized substances in the composition of preparations, the concentration applied, and genotype of rhizobia strains. It was noted that the adaptive reactions of microorganisms to the action of pesticides are manifested in the correction of biochemical and physiological processes, which ensure their continued existence under conditions of anthropogenic stress. The effect of chemical plant protection preparations under different methods of their application on symbiotic systems formed with the participation of active strains of nodule bacteria and legumes was analyzed. Depending on the genotypes of micro- and macrosymbionts, components of chemicals, a number of biotic and abiotic environmental factors, different effects of pesticides on the number and weight of root nodules, the N2 assimilation rate, grain yield and quality indices were noted. Possible ways of combining the processes of legume seeds bacterization and their treatment by preparations with fungicidal or insecticidal action due to the use of pesticide-tolerant strains of rhizobia and the involvement of additional components of protective action in the preparations were identified.
Keywords: nitrogen fixation, bacterial preparations, rhizobia, chemical method of plant protection, pesticides, active substance, number and weight of nodules, yield
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