Fiziol. rast. genet. 2021, vol. 53, no. 2, 160-184, doi:

Photosynthesis and productivity: main scientific achievements and innovative developments

Stasik O.O., Kiriziy D.A., Priadki­na G.O

  • Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 31/17 Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine

Photosynthesis is the basis of the production process of plants, thus the study of the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus and the mechanisms of its functioning and regulation are important for unveiling ways to increase crop productivity. The paper summarizes the results of research by scientists of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics (IPPG) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in the global context of studying the role of photosynthesis in the production process and the formation of crop yields. The importance of the early period of research in the formation of methodological bases for studying the plant photosynthesis at laboratory and field conditions as well as taking into account its interaction with growth and development, mineral nutrition, etc. is emphasized; this laid the foundations of the national scientific school of physiology, biochemistry and ecology of photosynthesis. The results of main research and innovative developments, awarded by the State Prizes of USSR and Ukrainian SSR, as well as the Prizes M.G. Kholodny of NAS of Ukraine are presented. Scientists of IPPG NAS of Ukraine comprehensively characterized the structural and functional features of the photosynthetic apparatus at the levels of organization from subcellular to coenotic, and mechanisms of regulation in the sink-source system of plants in modern winter wheat varieties, and identified traits that can serve as physiological markers of productivity and drought-tolerance. It is established that high productivity of modern winter wheat varieties is related to prolonged duration of leaves assimilation apparatus during reproductive vegetation, increased photosynthesis activity and efficiency of solar radiation use at leaf and canopy levels, as well as improved stem depositing ability for water soluble carbohydrates. Based on the obtained results, the concept of autoregulation of photosynthesis and the strategy of assimilate distribution in the sink-source system of plants as factors of optimizing the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and increasing yield are formulated and developed. The results of research conducted in IPPG show that further genetic improvement of new varieties of winter wheat can come about through the increase in activity of the photosynthetic apparatus at the leaf and canopy levels in the close connection with optimizing growth and ontogenetic dynamics of biomass distribution in whole plant.

Keywords: photosynthesis, photorespiration, Rubisco, source-sink relations, light energy use efficiency, productivity, wheat

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2021, vol. 53, no. 2, 160-184

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