The anniversary article presents the current state, principles and methods of genetic improvement of plants and the main achievements of scientists of the Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in this direction. A retrospective review is made of the discoveries of scientists awarded the Lenin Prize, the State Prizes of the USSR and Ukraine in the field of science and technology, and high government awards. Scientific data on the genetic threat caused by the Chernobyl accident and man-made pollution are summarized. Practical achievements in the field of heterosis and mutation selection of cereals, molecular markers use, genetic engineering, and remote hybridization are covered in detail. The results of the study and implementation in the programs of selection and genetic research of new genes and genetic systems that affect the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain are presented. Attention is paid to the innovative developments of the Institute, in particular to new high-yielding winter wheat varieties and hybrids of maize, which are widely sown in Ukraine and abroad, and their transfer to agricultural production.
Keywords: plant genetic improvement, main methods, achievements, selection, varieties, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
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