Fiziol. rast. genet. 2023, vol. 55, no. 6, 463-492, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2023.06.463

Food end-use hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) — research and development related to breeding

Rybalka О.І.1,2, Polyshchuk S.S.1, Chervonis M.V.1, Morgun B.V.2,3, Morgun V.V.2

  1. Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute — National Center of Seed and Cultivars Investigation, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine 3 Ovidiopolska Rd., Odesa, 65036, Ukraine
  2. Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 31/17 Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine
  3. Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 148 Akademika Zabolotnoho St., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine

Two decades-long (2002-2023) breeding related genetic R&D resulted in development of the advanced breeding material of the spring and winter food end-use hull-less barley combi-ning advanced agronomic performance, high grain yield, outstanding drought tolerance, excellent threshing ability, technological and nutritional grain quality. Highly valuable breeding material of winter hull-less barley possessing the highest drought tolerance (incomparably over than winter wheat) at the grain developmen-grain filling stages also equally tolerant at the seedling appearance-plant tillering stages has been developed. On the base of this advanced breeding material a new high yielding variety of 2-rowed winter hull-less barley ‘Imperator’ was released. This cultivar combines extra-tolerance to drought with high plant resistance to lodging and 1000 perfectly filled seed’s weight nearly 60 g. The winter hull-less barley breeding material with prolonged (middle-late) vegetation time that is not inferior (equal or superior) in yield performance and drought tolerance to traditional for South Region cultivars with early- or middle-long vegetation period was also developed. Spike threshing ability is a critical characteristic for hull-less barley. On the base of our long-term breeding experience we came to the conclusion that the 2-rowed morphotype of hull-less barley is superior to the 6-rowed morphotype in threshing performance. However, the threshing rate of hull-less barley’s advanced breeding material possessing gene wax (waxy) is nearing to 100 %. Awn-less hull-less barley’s morphotypes (2- and 6-rowed) are inferior to awned one in grain yield, spike’s threshing quality and grain size uniformity. It also showed the top spike sterility with empty apical grain flowers. The awn-less spike morphotype is not perspective in use for hull-less barley cultivars development in South Region. In our breeding programs the target hull-less barley morphotype is 2-rowed that is equal with 6-rowed morphotype in grain yield performance, however, is superior to the last one in several important agronomic and technological characters such as spike threshing performance, 1000 grains weight, grain size uniformity, better appearance of the end-use food products made from whole grains. The breeding related genetic program aimed on the hull-less food barley biofortification in grain antioxidant activity using genetic resources with colored (purple, blue and black) grain enriched with powerful antioxidant pigments anthocyanins and phytomelanins was first initiated in Ukraine. The breeding related programs of the food hull-less barley grain biofortification by the key minerals content, vitamins, soluble dietary fiber beta-glucans, bioactive compounds, enhancement-lowering of starch amylose, development of hull-less barley with black grain and ultra-low gluten content were also pioneered in Ukraine.

Our breeding related research programs are aimed on the development in Ukraine of the new food end-use hull-less barley, predominantly winter and alternative cultivars, as a raw material for development and production on the Ukrainian food market of the new hull-less barley based functional food products. The research is also aimed on popularization in Ukraine of the hull-less barley as the unique healthy food product with highly valuable nutritional properties as well as an enhanced functional food status.

Keywords: Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum, grain, mutation, pigmentation, protein, gluten, phosphorus, functional nutrition, food safety

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2023, vol. 55, no. 6, 463-492

Full text and supplemented materials

Free full text: PDF  

References

1. Gerasimova, S., Hertig, Ch., Korotkova, A., Kolosovskaya, E., Otto, I., Heikel, S., Kochetov, A., Khlestkina, E. & Kumlehn, J. (2020). Conversion of hulled into naked barley by Cas endonuclease-mediated knockout of the NUD gene. BMC Plant Biol., 20, suppl. 1, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02454-9

2. Rybalka, O.I., Morgun, B.V. & Polyshchuk, S.S. (2016). Barley as functional food product. Kyiv: Logos (in Ukrainian).

3. Bhatty, R.S. (1999). The potential of hull-less barley. Cereal Chem., 76, pp. 589-599. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.5.589

4. Meints, B. & Hayes, P.M. (2019). Breeding naked barley for food, feed, and malt. In: Goldman, I. (Ed.). Plant Breeding Reviews. Wiley, pp. 95-119. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119616801.ch4

5. Yulin, Wang, Zha, Sang, Shaohang, Xu, Qijun, Xu, Xingquan, Zeng, Dunzhu, Jabu & Hongjun, Yuan (2020). Comparative proteomics analysis of Tibetan hull-less barley under osmotic stress via data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry. Giga Sci., 9, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giaa019

6. La, Geng, Mengdi, Li, Guoping, Zhang & Lingzhen, Ye (2022). Barley: a potential cereal for producing healthy and functional foods. Food Quality and Safety, 6, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1093/fqsafe/fyac012

7. Shaveta, Harinderjeet, Kaur & Simarjit, Kaur (2019). Hulless barley: A new era of research for food purposes. J. Cereal Res., 11 (2), pp. 114-124. https://doi.org/10.25174/2249-4065/2019/83719

8. Brigid, Meints, B., Vallejos, C. & Hayes, P. (2021). Multi-use naked barley: A new frontier. J. Cereal Sci., 102, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2021.103370

9. Agu, R.C., Bringhurst, T.A., Brosnan, J.M. & Pearson, S. (2009). Potential of hull-less barley malt for use in malt and grain whisky production. J. Inst. Brew. (JIB), 115, pp. 128-133. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2009.tb00357.x

10. Kinner, M., Nitschko, S., Sommeregger, J., Petrasch, A., Linsberger-Martin, G., Grausgruber, H., Berghofer, E. & Siebenhandl-Ehn, S. (2011). Naked barley-optimized recipe for pure barley bread with sufficient beta-glucan according to the EFSA health claims. J. Cereal. Sci., 53, pp. 225-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2011.01.001

11. Meints, B. & Hayes, P.M. (2019). Breeding naked barley for food, feed, and malt. In: Goldman, I. (Ed.). Plant Breeding Reviews. Wiley, pp. 95-119. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119616801.ch4

12. Newman, R.K. & Newman, C.W. (2008). Barley for Food and Health. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication, Hoboken, NJ, USA. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470369333

13. Yawen, Zeng, Xiaoying, Pu, Juan, Du, Xiaomeng, Yang, Xia, Li, Md. Siddikun Nabi, Mandal, Tao, Yang & Jiazhen, Yang (2020). Molecular Mechanism of Functional Ingredients in Barley to Combat Human Chronic Diseases. Hindawi Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, pp. 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3836172

14. Raboy, V. (2002). Progress in breeding low phytate crops. J. Nutr., 132, No. 3, pp. 503-505. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.3.503S

15. Chen, P., Toribara, T. & Warner, H. (1956). Microdetermination of phosphorus. Anal. Biochem., 28, No. 11, pp. 1756-1758. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60119a033

16. Rybalka, O.I., Morgun, B.V., Chervonis, M.V., Polyshchuk, S.S., Morgun, B.V., Toporash, I.G. & Trojanivska, A.V. (2022). LPA-mutations and naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) biofortification for grain mineral phosphorus. Fiziol. rast. genet., 54, No. 6, pp. 484-495. [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2022.06.484

17. Abdel-Aal, E.-S. & Hucl, P. (1999). A rapid method for quantifying total anthocyanins in blue aleurone and purple pericarp wheats. Cereal Chem., 76, pp. 350-354. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.3.350

18. Rybalka, O.I. (2010). Laboratory protocols of wheat gluten protein separation by electrophoresis. Proc. Res. SGI-NCNS, 16, No. 56, pp. 171-179 [in Ukrainian].

19. Laemmli, U. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 227, pp. 680-685. https://doi.org/10.1038/227680a0

20. Mohammadkhani, A. (2005). Survey of starch amylose content in naked barley (H. vulgare L. nudum). Pakistan J. Nutr., 4, pp. 183-186. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2005.183.186

21. Rybalka, O.I., Katrii, V.B., Polyshchuk, S.S. & Morgun, B.V. (2021). Development of hull-less barley with ultra-low gluten content via target gene combination. I. Isolation of triple mutants and black grained genotypes. Agric. Sci. Pract., 8 (1), pp. 14-24. https://doi.org/10.15407/agrisp8.01.040

22. Rybalka, O.I., Katrii, V.B., Morgun, B.V. & Polyshchuk, S.S. (2020). Mutation in the locus Sex6 that substantially improves nutritional barley grain quality. Fiziol. rast. genet., 52, No. 3, pp. 238-247. [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2020.03.238

23. Rossnagel, B.G. (2000). Hulless barley - Western Canada corn. Proc. 8th Int. Barley Genet. Symp., 1, pp. 135-142. Adelaide.

24. Bird, A., Flory, C., Davies, D., Usher, S. & Topping, D. (2004). A novel barley cultivar (Himalaya 292) with a specific gene mutation in starch synthase IIa raises large bowel starch and short-chain fatty acids in rats. J. Nutr., 134 (4), pp. 831-835. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.4.831

25. Bird, A., Jackson, M., King, R., Davies, D., Usher, S. & Topping, D. (2004). A novel high-amylose barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292) lowers plasma cholesterol and alters indices of large-bowel fermentation in pigs. British J. Nutr., 92, pp. 607-615. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20041248

26. Clarke, B., Liang, R., Morell, M., Bird, A., Jenkins, C. & Li, Z. (2008). Gene expression in a starch synthase IIa mutant of barley: changes in the level of gene transcription and grain composition. Funct. Integr. Genomics, 8, pp. 211-221. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10142-007-0070-7

27. Stathas, I., Sakellaridis, A., Papadelli, M., Kapolos, J., Papadimitrou, K. & Stathas, G. (2023). The effect of insect infestation on storage agricultural products and the quality of food. Foods, 12 (10), p. 2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102046

28. Key, M.N., Zwilling, Ch.E., Barbey, A.K. & Talukdar, T.M. (2019). Essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals moderate the relationship between the right frontal pole and measures of memory. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201801048

29. Berdanier, C., Dwyer, J. & Herber, D. (2013). Handbook of nutrition and food (3rd ed.). CRC Press, 1136 p. Retried 3 July 2016. https://doi.org/10.1201/b15294

30. Li, Y.C., Raboy, V., Ledoux, D.R. & Veum, T.L. (2001). Bioavailability of phosphorus in low phytic acid barley. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 10 (1) pp. 86-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/10.1.86

31. Rosell, C., Barro, F., Sousa, C. & Mena, C. (2014). Cereals for developing gluten-free products and analytical tools for gluten detection. J. Cereal Sci. 59 (3), pp. 354-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.10.001

32. Zuidmeer, L., Goldhahn, K., Rona, R., Gislason, D., Madsen, C., Summers, C., Sodergren, E., Dahlstrom, J., Lindner, T., Sigurdardottir, S., McBride, D. & Keil, T. (2008). The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 121, pp. 1210-1218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2008.02.019

33. Comino, I., Real, A., Moreno, M., Montes, R., Cebolla, A. & Sousa, C. (2013). Immunological determination of gliadin 33-mer equivalent peptides in beers as a specific and practical analytical method to assess safety for celiac patients. J. Sci. Food Agric., 15, pp. 933-943. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5830

34. Golley, S., Corsini, N., Topping, D., Morell, M. & Mohr, P. (2015). Motivations for avoiding wheat consumption in Australia: results from a population survey. Public Health Nutr., 18, pp. 490-499. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980014000652

35. Ravikumara, M., Nootigattu, V. & Sandau, B. (2007). Ninety percent of celiac disease is being missed. J. Pediatr. Gasrtoenterol. Nutr., 45, pp. 497-499. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e31812e5710

36. Gluten Free Food Market Statistics 2026. Industry Forecasts. Nov. 2019, 190 p., Report ID GMI226.

37. Tanner, G., Blundell, M., Colgrave, M. & Howitt, C. (2016). Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations. Plant Biotechnol. J., 14, pp. 1139-1150, https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12482

38. Shewry, P.R. (1993). Barley Seed Proteins, in: Barley: Chemistry and Technology (eds. J. MacGregor and R. Bhatty). AACC, St. Paul Minnesota, USA, pp. 131-197.

39. Shewry, P., Bunce, N., Kreis, M. & Forde, B. (1985). Polymorphism at the Hor 1 locus of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Biochem. Genet., 23, pp. 391-404. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00499082

40. Tanner, G., Howitt, C., Colgrave, M. & Blundell M. (2014). European Patent Office Application EP3008161A1. https://patents.google.com/patent/RU2518241C2/ru

41. Brennan, C., Smith, D., Harris, N. & Shewry, P.R. (1998). The production and characterization of Hor 3 null lines of barley provides new information on the relationship of D hordein to malting performance. J. Cereal Sci., 28, p. 291-299. http://pascal-francis.inist.fr/vibad/index.php?action=getRecordDetail&idt=1637174 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0733-5210(98)90009-1