Fiziol. rast. genet. 2021, vol. 53, no. 4, 320-335, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2021.04.320

Effects of exogenous plant growth regulators on morphogenesis, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and productivity of sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L.

Rogach V.V.1, Voytenko L.V.2, Shcherbatiuk M.M.2, Kuryata V.G.1, Kosakivska I.V.2, Rogach T.I.1

  1. Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University 32 Ostrozhsky St., Vinnytsia, 21100, Ukraine
  2. M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine  2 Tereshchenkivska St., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine

During the pot experiment in soil-sandy culture, the effect of foliar treatment with 0.005 % aqueous solutions of 1-naphthylacetic acid (1-NАА), gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) on growth and physiological and biochemical characteristics of sweet pepper cv. Antey were investigated. It was found that exogenous growth stimulators at the budding stage led to an increase in the plants linear size, leaves number, the leaves, stems and roots fresh weight, as well as the whole plant dry weight. After treatment with growth regulators, the area of leaf blades increased throughout the growing season, and at the stage of fruit formation — the total leaf area of the whole plant. Exogenous 6-BAP significantly increased the amount of chlorophyll in the leaves, while under the action of GA3 this index decreased. Growth stimulants thickened the leaf blades due to the proliferation of chlorenchyma cells, namely the increase in the volume of columnar parenchyma cells. 1-NАА and 6-BAP also increased the size of the spongy parenchyma cells. All growth regulators reduced the content of IАА and ABA in the stems. 1-NАА and GA3 increased the content of endogenous GA3 in the stems, and 6-BAP decreased it. The growth regulators increased the content of endogenous IАА in the leaves, the maximum increase occurred during treatment with synthetic auxin. 1-NАА and 6-BAP decreased the content of endogenous GA3, and under the action of exogenous GA3 there was an increase in this phytohormone. All growth substances reduced the ABA content in the leaves. The most significant decrease was observed under the action of exogenous GA3. Growth substances have been shown to reduce the amount of cytokinins in stems and increase in leaves. 1-NАА minimized the cytokinins content in the stems and maximized in leaves. Treatment with a solution of GA3 had no significant effect on the cytokinins accumulation. All growth regulators increased the yield of sweet pepper culture by increasing the number of fruits per plant and the average weight of one fruit. The most effective was the use of a synthetic analogue of cytokinins — 6-BAP.

Keywords: Capsicum annuum L., sweet pepper, synthetic growth regulators, morphogenesis, mesostructure, chlorophyll, phytohormones, yield

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2021, vol. 53, no. 4, 320-335

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