Fiziol. rast. genet. 2021, vol. 53, no. 4, 279-291, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2021.04.279

The infrared spectrum of the ultra quality maize hybrid preferable for human consumption: the identification of organic molecules and excited state of functional groups in spectral bands of the kernel, endosperm, pericarp and the germ

Radenović Č.N.1,2, Maksimov G.V.3, Bajuk Bogdanović D.2, Hao J.4, Radosavljević M.M.1, Delić N.S.1, Čamdžija Z.F.1

  1. Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje 1 Slobodana Bajiєa, Belgrade, 11185, Republic of Serbia
  2. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry Studenski trg 12-16, Belgrade, 11000, Republic of Serbia
  3. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology  1-12 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
  4. Shenzhen MSU-BIT University  299 Ruyi Road, Longgang District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518172, Peoples Republic of China

Results on the studies of kernels and their structural parts: endosperm, pericarp and the germ of the maize hybrid ZP 633 that is very desirable for human consumption are presented. For the first time, the method of infrared spectroscopy was apply to record and study all spectral bands (of very high, high, low and very low intensity) of the infrared spectrum of maize hybrid kernels, endosperm, pericarp and the germ. Based on performed studies it can be stated that infrared spectra of maize hybrid kernels, endosperm, pericarp and the germ are characterised by all their spectral bands and several parameters: number, intensity, kinetics and the distribution of the site of origin in the wavenumber range of 400—4000 cm–1. These parameters were particularly observed for both kernels and their parts (endosperm, pericap and the germ). Spectral bands of very high and high intensity are also characterised by the stated parameters: the number that usually ranges from 3 to 5, intensity, various kinetic forms, as well as the distribution of their origin within the wavenumber range. These spectral bands make possible the identification of organic compounds, their fragments and molecular structures that determine them. In case of spectral bands for the kernel, endosperm, pericarp and the germ with very high and high intensity, organic compounds can be identified as: proteins, lipids, sugars, esters, amides, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ethers, phenols, alcohols, aromatic carbohydrates, acyclic compounds, alkenes, alkanes, and alkynes. Spectral bands of the kernel, endosperm, pericarp and the germ of low and very low intensity are also characterised by the stated parameters: the number that can differ, low intensity, the distribution of sites of their origin, and especially the frequency of vibrations of valence bonds of functional groups of organic molecules. Spectral bands of the kernel, endosperm, pericarp and the germ of low and very low intensity, also provide the possibility to identify the excited state of molecular structures and valence bonds of functional groups of organic compounds. The excited state of molecular structures and valence bonds of functional groups of organic compounds is expressee in different forms of vibration movements: symmetric and asymmetric valence vibration (stretching), deformation vibration of valence bonds and molecular structures (scissoring), rocking of valence bonds and molecular structures (rocking), wagging of valence bonds and molecular structures (wagging), twisting of valence bonds and molecular structures (twisting), trembling of valence bonds and molecular structures (trembling).

Keywords: Zea mays L., hybrid, kernel, pericarp, endosperm, germ, infrared spectrum, spectral band, organic molecule, functional group, excited state, vibration of chemical bonds

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2021, vol. 53, no. 4, 279-291

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