The environment situation nowadays is characterized by toxic influence of anthropogenic matters combined with stress pressure of environmental factors. The obtaining of forms with combined stress tolerance is especial object of breeding programs. The reliable tolerance markers can provide a successful result. It is known that some organic molecules (compatible osmotic substances) are accumulated in plant cells under stress conditions. Free proline and sucrose are the established indicators of plant stress tolerance. Those compounds can directly or indirectly influence upon each other. The in vitro system provides the opportunity to evaluate the contribution of proline and sucrose in situ in the maintenance of cell tolerance. Resistant winter wheat cell lines obtained via cell selection with cadmium cations were investigated under lethal for wild type water stress pressure. Water stress was created by addition of manitol. Cd-resistant lines maintained viability both under Cd2+ or manitol conditions. Contents of compatible osmotic substances — proline and sucrose — were measured in calli. During cultivation at Cd2+ presence, there was detected the opposite trend of those agents accumulation. The low proline level was coordinated with significant sucrose content. Under water stress proline act a key role, its level considerably increased. There was assumed that cell lines with combined stress resistance may retained by means of specific or unspecific reactions that depended on cultural conditions. This event significantly extends viability potential of new form. Cell selection with heavy metal ions can ensure the obtaining of plant forms with various tolerance mechanisms depended on type of stressor.
Keywords: winter wheat, cell selection, cadmium cations, water stress, resistant cell lines, proline, sucrose
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