The peculiarities of growth processes, formation of leaf apparatus, its mesostructure and photosynthetic activity, as well as biological productivity of eggplants under the influence of synthetic analogues of the main growth-promoting hormones and retardants, which differ in mechanism of action, are investigated. Under the treatment by tebuconazole (EW-250) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) the number of leaves per plant increased, and under chlormequat chloride (CCC-750) and esfon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) — decreased. All compounds except 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the leaves fresh weight and caused thickening of the leaf blade due to the growth of chlorenchyma cells. Under the influence of retardants EW-250 and CCC-750, and growth-promoting substances 6-BAP and gibberellic acid (GA3), the columnar parenchyma cells volume increased, with cell sizes of the spongy parenchyma practically unchanged. Under the influence of growth regulators the stomatal apparatus of plants underwent changes. 1-Naphthyl acetic acid (1-NAA) and GA3 did not change the number of cells of the lower epidermis per unit of abaxial leaf surface, but reduced the number of stomata, and 6-BAP and retardants significantly increased both the number of epidermal cells and the number of stomata. All growth regulators, except 1-NAA, significantly increased the stomatal area. All preparations except 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the fresh weight of the stems and roots and the dry weight of the whole plant. All compounds except GA3 increased the chlorophylls contents in the eggplant leaves while increasing the net assimilation rate. The highest chlorophyll content was revealed after treatment with EW-250, and the highest assimilation rate was under the influence of 6-BAP. All growth regulators have increased photorespiration and dark respiration. Transpiration activity increased the most after treatment with EW-250 and 6-BAP, and decreased the most after treatment with GA3. All growth promoters and retardants (except ethylene producer esfon) have been shown to increase crop productivity. The most effective was the use of the triazole derivative retardant tebuconazole and cytokinin growth promoter 6-BAP.
Keywords: Solanum melongena L., growth promoters, retardants, morphogenesis, leaf apparatus, mesostructure, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, respiration, productivity
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