Fiziol. rast. genet. 2020, vol. 52, no. 2, 152-168, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2020.02.152

Morphogenesis, photosynthesis and productivity of eggplants under the influence of growth regulators with various action mechanisms

Rogach V.V.1, Kiriziy D.A.2, Stasik О.О.2, Rogach T.I.1

  1. Vinnytsia Mykhailo Kotsiubynskyi State Pedagogical University 32 Ostrozhsky St., Vinnytsia, 21100, Ukraine
  2. Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 31/17 Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine

The peculiarities of growth processes, formation of leaf apparatus, its mesostructure and photosynthetic activity, as well as biological productivity of eggplants under the influence of synthetic analogues of the main growth-promoting hormones and retardants, which differ in mechanism of action, are investigated. Under the treatment by tebuconazole (EW-250) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) the number of leaves per plant increased, and under chlormequat chloride (CCC-750) and esfon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) — decreased. All compounds except 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the leaves fresh weight and caused thickening of the leaf blade due to the growth of chlorenchyma cells. Under the influence of retardants EW-250 and CCC-750, and growth-promoting substances 6-BAP and gibberellic acid (GA3), the columnar parenchyma cells volume increased, with cell sizes of the spongy parenchyma practically unchanged. Under the influence of growth regulators the stomatal apparatus of plants underwent changes. 1-Naphthyl acetic acid (1-NAA) and GA3 did not change the number of cells of the lower epidermis per unit of abaxial leaf surface, but reduced the number of stomata, and 6-BAP and retardants significantly increased both the number of epidermal cells and the number of stomata. All growth regulators, except 1-NAA, significantly increased the stomatal area. All preparations except 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the fresh weight of the stems and roots and the dry weight of the whole plant. All compounds except GA3 increased the chlorophylls contents in the eggplant leaves while increasing the net assimilation rate. The highest chlorophyll content was revealed after treatment with EW-250, and the highest assimilation rate was under the influence of 6-BAP. All growth regulators have increased photorespiration and dark respiration. Transpiration activity increased the most after treatment with EW-250 and 6-BAP, and decreased the most after treatment with GA3. All growth promoters and retardants (except ethylene producer esfon) have been shown to increase crop productivity. The most effective was the use of the triazole derivative retardant tebuconazole and cytokinin growth promoter 6-BAP.

Keywords: Solanum melongena L., growth promoters, retardants, morphogenesis, leaf apparatus, mesostructure, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, respiration, productivity

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2020, vol. 52, no. 2, 152-168

Full text and suplimented materials

Free full text: PDF  

References

1. Morgun, V.V., Yavorska, V.K. & Dragovoz, I.V. (2002). The problem of growth regulators in the world and its solution in Ukraine. Fiziologia i biokhimiya kult. rastenij, 34, No. 5, pp. 371-375 [in Ukrainian].

2. Gritsaenko, Z.M., Ponomarenko, S.P., Karpenko, V.P. & Leontyuk, I.B. (2008). Biologically active substances in crop production. Kyiv: Nichlava [in Ukrainian].

3. Kuryata, V.G. (2009). Retardants are modifiers of the hormonal status of plants. In Fiziolohiya roslyn: problemy ta perspektyvy rozvytku, 1, pp. 565-589. Kyiv: Logos [in Ukrainian].

4. Kiriziy, D.A. (2004). Photosynthesis and plant growth in the aspect of source-sink relationships. Kyiv: Logos [in Russian].

5. Kuryata, V.G., Shevchuk, O.A., Kiriziy, D.A. & Gulyaev, B.I. (2002). Structural and functional organization of sugar beet leaf under the action of retardants, 34, No. 1, pp. 11-16 [in Ukrainian].

6. Kuryata, I.V. & Kiriziy, D.A. (2008). Regulation of source-sink relations in the system assimilate depot-growth in pumpkin seedlings by the influence of gibberellin and chlormequat chloride under conditions of skoto- and photomorphogenesis. Fiziologia i biokhimiya kult. rastenij, 40, No. 5, pp. 448-456 [in Ukrainian].

7. Poprotska, I.V., Kuryata, V.G., Polyvanyi, S.V., Golunova, L.A. & Prysedsky, Y.G. (2019). Effect of gibberellin and retardants on the germination of seeds with different types of reserve substances under the conditions of skoto- and photomorphogenesis. Biologija, 65, No. 4, pp. 296-307. https://doi.org/10.6001/biologija.v65i4.4123

8. Tkachuk, O.O. (2015). Effect of paclobutrazole on anatomical and morphological parameters of potato plants. Naukovyy visnyk Skhidnoyevropeyskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Lesi Ukrayinky, No. 2, pp. 47-50 [in Ukrainian].

9. Rogach, V.V., Kravets, O.V., Buinaya, O.I. & Kuryata, V.G. (2018). Dynamics of accumulation and redistribution of different forms of carbohydrates and nitrogen in organs of tomato plants under the action of retardants. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 9, No. 2, pp. 293-299 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15421/021843

10. Dospekhov, B.A. Methods of field experiment (1985). Moscow: Agropromizdat [in Russian].

11. Kazakov, E.A. (2000). Methodological bases of the experiment on plant physiology. Kyiv: Phytosociocenter [in Ukrainian].

12. Mokronosov, A.T. & Borzenkova, R.A. (1978). Methods for quantitative assessment of the structure and functional activity of photosynthetic tissues and organs. Trudy po prikladnoy botanike, genetike i selektsii, 61, No. 3, pp. 119-131 [in Russian].

13. Kuryata, V.G. (1998). The effect of retardants on the mesostructure of raspberry leaves. Fiziologia i biokhimiya kult. rastenij, 30, No. 2, pp. 144-149 [in Russian].

14. Gavrilenko, V.F., Ladygina, M.E. & Handobina, M.N. (1975). Great workshop on plant physiology. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola [in Russian].

15. Mokronosov, A.T. & Kovalev, A.G. (Eds.). (1989). Photosynthesis and Bioproductivity: Methods of Determination. Moskow: Agropromizdat [in Russian].

16. Rogach, T.I. (2012). Influence of a mixture of chloromethochloride and treptolem on the morphogenesis and productivity of sunflower. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats VNAU, Ser. Silskohospodarski nauky, Iss. 1 (57), pp. 121-127 [in Ukrainian].

17. Kasem, M.M. & Abd El-Baset, M.M. (2015). Studing the influence of some growth retardants as a chemical mower on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). J. of Plant Sci., 3, No. 5, pp. 255-258. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.jps.20150305.12

18. Sugiura, D., Sawakami, K., Kojim, M., Sakakibara, H., Terashima, I. & Tateno, M. (2015). Roles of gibberellins and cytokinins in regulation of morphological and physiological traits in Polygonum cuspidatum responding to light and nitrogen availabilities. Functional Plant Biol., 42, No. 4, pp. 397-409. https://doi.org/10.1071/FP14212

19. Polyvanyi, S.V. (2018). Anatomical and morphological features of the poppy plants leaf apparatus structure under the action of growth promoters. Naukovi zapysky Ternopilskoho natsionalnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni V. Hnatyuka. Ser. Biolohiya, No. 3-4, pp. 21-27 [in Ukrainian].

20. Khodanitska, O. O. & Kuryata,V. G. (2011). The effect of treptolem on seed yield and quality characteristics of flax seed oil. Kormy i kormovyrobnyctvo, No. 70, pp. 54-59 [in Ukrainian].

21. Yan, Y., Wan, Y., Liu, W., Wang, X., Yong, T. & Yang, W. (2015). Influence of seed treatment with uniconazole powder on soybean growth, photosynthesis, dry matter accumulation after flowering and yield in relay strip intercropping system. Plant Production Science, 18, No. 3, pp. 295-301. https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.18.295

22. Rogach, T.I. (2011). Physiological bases of regulation of morphogenesis and productivity of sunflower by means of chlormequat chloride and treptolem (Unpublished candidate thesis). Uman Pedagogical University, Uman, Ukraine [in Ukrainian].

23. Rogach, V.V. (2009). Influence of retardants on morphogenesis, productivity and composition of higher fatty acids of winter rapeseed oil (Unpublished candidate thesis). Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Kyiv, Ukraine [in Ukrainian].

24. Ren, B., Zhang, J., Dong, S., Liu, P. & Zhao, B. (2017). Regulations of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) on leaf ultrastructure and photosynthetic characteristics of waterlogged summer maize. J. of Plant Growth Regul., 36, No. 3, pp. 743-754. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-017-9677-7

25. Rai, R.K., Tripathi, N., Gautam, D. & Singh, P. (2017). Exogenous application of ethrel and gibberellic acid stimulates physiological growth of late planted sugarcane with short growth period in sub-tropical India. J. of Plant Growth Regul., 36, No. 2, pp. 472-486. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-016-9655-5

26. Zhao, H., Cao, H., Ming-Zhen, P., Sun, Y. & Liu, T. (2017). The role of plant growth regulators in a plant aphid parasitoid tritrophic system. J. of Plant Growth Regul., 36, No. 4, pp. 868-876. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-017-9689-3

27. Yooyongwech, S., Samphumphuang, T., Tisarum, R., Theerawitaya, C. & Chaum, S. (2017). Water-deficit tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) by foliar application of paclobutrazol: roleof soluble sugar and free proline. Frontiers in Plant Sci., 8, 1400 p. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01400

28. Mohammad, N.K. & Mohammad, F. (2013). Effect of GA3, N and P ameliorate growth, seed and fibre yield by enhancing photosynthetic capacity and carbonic anhydrase activity of linseed. Integrative Agriculture, 12, No. 7, pp. 1183-1194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-3119(13)60443-8

29. Luo, Y., Yang, D., Yin, Y., Cui, Z, Li, Y., Chen, J., Zheng, M., Wang, Y., Pang, D., Li, Y. & Wang, Z. (2016). Effects of exogenous 6-BA and nitrogen fertilizers with varied rates on function and fluorescence characteristics of wheat leaves post anthesis. Scientia Agriculturalura Sinica, 49, No. 6, pp. 1060-1083. https://doi.org/ 10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2016.06.004

30. Xiaotao, D., Yuping, J., Hong, W., Haijun, J., Hongmei, Z., Chunhong, C. & Jizhu, Y. (2013). Effects ofcytokinin on photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, antioxidative system and carbohydrate accumulation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under low light. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35, No. 5, pp. 1427-1438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-012-1182-9

31. Kiriziy, D.A., Stasik, O.O., Pryadkina, G.A. & Shadchina, T.M. (2014). Photosynthesis (Vol. 2) Assimilation of CO2 and the mechanisms of its regulation. Kyiv: Logos [in Russian].

32. Stasik, O.O., Kiriziy, D.A. & Priadkina, G.O. (2016). Photosynthesis and crop productivity. Fiziol. rast. genet., 48, No. 3, pp. 232-251 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2016.03.232

33. Stasik, O.O. (2014). Photorespiration: metabolism and physiological role. In Modern problems of photosynthesis (Vol. 2, pp. 505-535), Moskow-Izhevsk: Institute of Computer Research [in Russian].

34. Vedenichova, N.P. & Kosakivska, I.V. (2020). Cytokinins in ontogeny and adaptation of cereals. Fiziol. rast. genet., 52, No. 1, pp. 3-30 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2020.01.003