As the result of studying Triticum aestivum L. mutants, induced by the contamination of the environment with mutagenic factors, the samples with higher productivity were singled out. Taking into consideration the fact that the development of high yielding and high quality cultivars is a priority national task of current wheat breeding, the aim of the research was to study some parameters of grain quality of productive T. aestivum mutants and to find out the possibility to use technogenic contaminated territories when developing valuable material for breeding. Mutant samples of winter wheat cultivars Albatros odeskyi and Zymoiarka from previous testing (М6), induced by the radionuclide contamination of the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP and the industrial zone of uranium mining enterprises, by heavy metals of the areas adjacent to thermal power stations and metallurgical enterprises, by xenobiotics of pesticide and toxic waste warehouses were analyzed. Grain quality was determined by the parameters of the protein and gluten content, by the indices of grain hardness and sedimentation SDS-30. The highest protein and raw gluten content was typical for high yielding mutant samples, induced under the effect of discharges of Burshtyn ThPS, the radionuclide contamination of the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP and the industrial zone of Ingulsk mine. The sedimentation index of protein complex of mutant samples flour ranged within 65–92 ml for cultivar Albatros odeskyi and 48–64 ml for cultivar Zymoiarka. Its significant increase was observed in the mutants the yield capacity of which did not exceed that of an initial cultivar. The studied mutants of Albatros odeskyiby cultivar by the index of grain hardness did not equal the control considerably. The samples of Zymoiarka cultivar were characterized by a proper combination of indices of grain hardness at the level 61–67 and high yield capacity which occurred under the effect of the radionuclide contamination of the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP and the heavy metal discharges of the industrial enterprises. A number of highly productive mutants were identified which, due the increase of grain protein content and enhanced yield capacity, had the protein output per area unit that exceeded the index of the initial cultivar considerably. Using the effect of technogenic mutagen factors of the environment, it is possible to improve the quality of wheat grain and at the same to retain the yield capacity potential of the initial cultivar.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum L.,mutagen factors, grain quality, gluten, grain hardness, protein productivity
Full text and supplemented materialsFree full text: PDF
1. Waugh, R., Leader, D.J., McCallum, N. & Caldwell, D. (2006). Harvesting the potential of induced biological diversity. Trends in Plant Science, No. 11, pp. 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2005.12.007
2. Morgun, V.V. & Rybalka, O.I. (2017). Strategy of cereals genetic improvement aimed at food safety, health promotion and industry needs. Visnyk Natsionalnoi akademii nauk Ukrainy, No. 3, pp. 54-64 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/visn2017.03.054
3. Guseynov, S.I. (2015). Valuable varieties of soft wheat cultivars for quality selection. Tavricheskiy nauchnyiy obozrevatel, No. 3, pp. 1-4 [inRussian].
4. Mitrofanova, O.P. & Hakimova, A.G. (2016). New genetic resources in the selection of wheat to increase the protein content in grain. Vavilovskiy zhurnal genetiki i selektsii, 20, No. 4, pp. 545-554 [in Russian]. https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ16.177
5. Samofalov, A.P. (2003). Change in the main economic and biological characteristics and properties of winter common wheat in the process of selection (Extended abstract of candidate thesis). All-Russian Research Institute of Grain Crops, Zernograd, Russia, 20 p. [in Russian].
6. Krotova, L.A. & Popolzuhina, N.A. (2011). The influence of chemical and biological mutagens on the relationship of quantitative traits in common wheat. Vestnik Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta, 75, No. 1, pp. 45-48 [in Russian].
7. Popolzuhina, N.A. & Rutts, R.I. (2006). Induced mutagenesis and hybridization in solving the problem of grain quality of spring soft wheat. Doklady Rossiyskoy akademii selskohozyaystvennyih nauk, No. 3, pp. 3-4 [in Russian].
8. Eyges, N.S. (2013). The historical role of Rapoport in genetics. Continued research using chemical mutagenesis method. Vavilovskiy zhurnal genetiki i selektsii, 17, No. 1, pp.162-172 [in Russian].
9. Huaili, Q., Lanming, X. & Fei, H. (2005). Biological effect of the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana irradiated by MeV protons. Radiation Effect & Defects in Solids, No. 160, pp. 131-136. https://doi.org/10.1080/10420150500132596
10. Li-Jun, W., Jiang-Long, X. & Jun-Min, W. (2006). A comparative study on mutagenic effects of space flight and irradiation of г-rays on rice. Agricultural Sciences in China, 5, No. 11, pp. 812-819. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(06)60129-6
11. Yakymchuk, R.A. (2018). Effectiveness of using mutations induced in radiation-contaminated territories in improving winter wheat varieties. Faktory eksperymentalnoi evoliutsii orhanizmiv, No. 23, pp. 170-175 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.7124/FEEO.v23.1009
12. Yakymchuk, R. & Sorokina, S. (2017). The analysis of mutation variability of winter wheat under soil contamination with heavy metals of industrial discharges. Science Rise: Biological Science, No. 1, pp. 50-55. https://doi.org/10.15587/2519-8025.2017.93799
13. Yakymchuk, R.A. (2016). Mutational variability of Triticum aestivum L. under soil contamination with pesticides and toxic wastes. Visnyk Kharkivskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Seriia: Biolohiia, 3, No. 39, pp.72-80 [in Ukrainian].
14. Rybalka, O.I., Chervonis, M.V. & Lytvynenko, M.A. (2009). Evaluation of wheat grain quality in the early stages of breeding. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky, No. 1, pp. 44-48 [in Ukrainian].
15. Dospehov, B.A. (1985). Field experiment methodology (with the basics of statistical processing of research results). Moskva: Kolos, 351 p. [in Russian].
16. Hlestkina, E.K., Pshenichnikova, T.A., Usenko, N.I. & Otamanova Yu.S. (2016). Prospective applications of molecular genetic approaches to control technological properties of wheat grain in the context of the "grain-flour-bread" chain. Vavilovskiy zhurnal genetiki i selektsii, 20, No. 4, pp. 511-527 [inRussian]. https://doi.org/10.18699/VJ15.140
17. Herman, M.M. & Mishchenko, O.V. (2014). Dynamics of dry winter wheat grain accumulation. Visnyk Poltavskoi derzhavnoi ahrarnoi akademii, No. 1, pp. 14-16 [in Ukrainian].
18. Rybalka, O.I. (2011). Wheat quality and its improvement. Kyiv: Lohos, 496 p. [in Ukrainian].
19. Morgun, V.V., Sichkar, S.M., Pochynok, V.M., Niniieva, A.K., & Chuhunkova, T.V. (2016). Characterization of spelt collection samples (Triticum spelta L.) by elements of plant productivity structure and baking quality. Fiziologiya rasteniy i genetika, 48, No. 2, pp. 112-119 [in Ukrainian]. https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2016.02.112
20. Yakymchuk, R.A. (2018). Genetic consequences of the contamination of the environment with natural and technogenic mutagenic factors. (Extended abstract of Doctor thesis). Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Kyiv, Ukraine [in Ukrainian].