Fiziol. rast. genet. 2020, vol. 52, no. 2, 140-151, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2020.02.140

Grain quality of productive Triticum aestivum L. mutants, induced by technogenic contamination of the environment

Yakymchuk R.А.

  • Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 31/17 Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University 2 Sadova St., Uman, 20300, Ukraine

As the result of studying Triticum aestivum L. mutants, induced by the contamination of the environment with mutagenic factors, the samples with higher productivity were singled out. Taking into consideration the fact that the development of high yielding and high quality cultivars is a priority national task of current wheat breeding, the aim of the research was to study some parameters of grain quality of productive T. aestivum mutants and to find out the possibility to use technogenic contaminated territories when developing valuable material for breeding. Mutant samples of winter wheat cultivars Albatros odeskyi and Zymoiarka from previous testing (М6), induced by the radionuclide contamination of the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP and the industrial zone of uranium mining enterprises, by heavy metals of the areas adjacent to thermal power stations and metallurgical enterprises, by xenobiotics of pesticide and toxic waste warehouses were analyzed. Grain quality was determined by the parameters of the protein and gluten content, by the indices of grain hardness and sedimentation SDS-30. The highest protein and raw gluten content was typical for high yielding mutant samples, induced under the effect of discharges of Burshtyn ThPS, the radionuclide contamination of the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP and the industrial zone of Ingulsk mine. The sedimentation index of protein complex of mutant samples flour ranged within 65–92 ml for cultivar Albatros odeskyi and 48–64 ml for cultivar Zymoiarka. Its significant increase was observed in the mutants the yield capacity of which did not exceed that of an initial cultivar. The studied mutants of Albatros odeskyiby cultivar by the index of grain hardness did not equal the control considerably. The samples of Zymoiarka cultivar were characterized by a proper combination of indices of grain hardness at the level 61–67 and high yield capacity which occurred under the effect of the radionuclide contamination of the alienation zone of Chornobyl NPP and the heavy metal discharges of the industrial enterprises. A number of highly productive mutants were identified which, due the increase of grain protein content and enhanced yield capacity, had the protein output per area unit that exceeded the index of the initial cultivar considerably. Using the effect of technogenic mutagen factors of the environment, it is possible to improve the quality of wheat grain and at the same to retain the yield capacity potential of the initial cultivar.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L.,mutagen factors, grain quality, gluten, grain hardness, protein productivity

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2020, vol. 52, no. 2, 140-151

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