The article, devoted to the 100th anniversary of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, presents the main areas of work of the leading research institution of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine — Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics. The main fundamental discoveries and developments in the field of biochemistry, physiology and ecology of photosynthesis, plant mineral nutrition and symbiotic nitrogen fixation, physiology of herbicide action, resistance and genetic improvement of plant organisms are indicated. Scientific achievements in the field of genetic improvement of the most important agricultural crops for Ukraine – wheat and maize, obtained under the guidance of academician of the NAS of Ukraine V.V. Morgun, are demonstrated. Particular attention is paid to the achievements of scientists of the Institute over the past 10 years, the cogency of which is evidenced by a number of prestigious awards at the state and world levels.