Mutational variability underlies the development of the source material for plant breeding. The method of induced mutagenesis allows to expand genetic diversity of species by involving samples with mutations of genes and chromosomes in the breeding process. Induced mutants obtained by the treatment with a various mutagenic agents may subsequently turn into new varieties after careful selection or involvement in hybridization. The article shows that treatment with new chemical mutagens of the DG series, derived from dimethyl sulfate (DMS), resulted in a wide range of morphological and physiological mutations that were divided into five groups. The frequency of mutations and the direction of the action of DG mutagens are described in comparison with the basic substance and well-known ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagen. It was demonstrated that the mutagens of the DG series largely surpassed the original DMS mutagen according to the frequency of the induced changes, which indicates their effectiveness. It was determined that DG-9 mutagen was the most effective one to cause mutations in chlorophyll synthesis, DG-7 and DG-6 mutagens were the most effective to induce mutations in the structure of stalk, shoots and leaves, DG-2 mutagen — to cause mutations of the corona and anthers color, seed color, and mutations for physiological traits of growth and development.
Keywords: Linum humile Mill., flax, mutagenesis, chemical mutagen, dimethyl sulfate, ethyl methane sulfonate, mutation
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