The effects of soil drought on the growth characteristics of plants Triticum aestivum L. cv. Podolyanka and Triticum spelta L. cv. Frankenkorn were analyzed in laboratory experiment. It was shown that a moderate soil drought (four days) had a negative effect on the growth and accumulation of the leaves and roots fresh mass of both species. In 18-day-old T. aestivum plants, the length and weight of the leaves decreased by 19 and 21 %, and the roots — by 11 and 34 %, respectively. After the renewal of irrigation at 23-th day, the length of leaves and roots were less than the control ones, whereas the root mass increased almost twice as compared with after stress plants, but remained 20 % less than control. The growth characteristics of the 18-day-old T. spelta leaves after moderate soil drought had minor changes, while the length and weight of the roots have decreased by 19 and 48 %, respectively. During the recovery period, the difference between the biometrical characteristics of control and experiment plants was less pronounced, but there was no complete recovery. Drought increased the content of dry matter in the leaves of the 18-day-old T. aestivum and decreased in the root system of T. spelta. The changes in growth characteristics and accumulation of dry matter revealed species-specific response to moderate soil drought. The leaves of T. spelta were more tolerant to moderate soil drought, whereas in T. aestivum there were roots.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., Triticum spelta L., soil drought, growth, stress tolerance
Full text and supplemented materialsFree full text: PDF
1. Borysova, O.V., Ruzhytskaya, O.N., Hlushenko, Yu.M., Chumachenko, M.M., Pidhirna, A.I. & Lornoval, N.A. (2014, May). Morphometric indices of the vegetative part of plants of ocher and filamentous species. Problemy i perspektyvy issledovanii rastitelnoho mira. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-praktycheskoi konferentsii molodykh uchenykh (pp. 207), Yalta [in Ukrainian].
2. Hospodarenko, H.M., Kostohryz, P.V., Lyubych, V.V., Pariy, M.F. & Poltoretskyy, I.O. (2006). Wheat spelta. Kyiv: Stik hrup Ukrainia [in Ukrainian].
3. Dorofeyev, V.F., Udachin, R.A. & Semenova, L.V. (1987). Wheat of the world. Leningrad: VO Agropromizdat [in Russian].
4. Zhukovskiy, P.M. (1971). Cultivated plants and their relatives. Leningrad: Kolos [in Russian].
5. Zhuchenko, A.A. (2008). Adaptive crop production (ecology-genetic aspects): theory and practice). Moskva: Agrorus. [in Russian].
6. Ionova, Ye.V., Gaze, V.L., Sharova, V.M. & Nekrasov, Ye.I. (2016). Root system and dry weight of winter wheat plants in conditions of provocative background for dry. Zernovoye khozyaystvo Rossii, No. 1, pp. 32-35 [in Russian].
7. Kosakivs'ka, I.V. (2007). Ecological Direction in Plant Physiology: Achievements and Prospects. Fiziologia i biokhimia kul't. rastenij, 39, No. 4, pp. 279-290 [in Ukrainian].
8. Kudoyarova, G.R., Kholodova, V.P. & Veselov, D.S. (2013). The current state of the problem of the water balance of plants in the presence of water shortages. Fiziologiia rastenij, 60, No. 2, pp. 155-165 [in Russian].
9. Morgun, V.V., Sichkar, S.M., Pochynok, V.M., Niniieva, A.K. & Chuhunkova, T.M. (2016). Characteristics of the collection of spelt (Triticum spelta L.) by elements of the structure of productivity and bakery quality. Fiziol. rast. genet., 48, No. 2, pp. 112-119 [in Ukrainian].
10. Morgun, V.V., Sanin, Ye.V. & Shvartau, V.V. (2014). Club 100 centners. Modern varieties and systems of nutrition and protection of winter wheat. Kyiv: Logos [in Ukrainian].
11. Niniieva, A.K., Kozub, N.O., Sozinov, I.O., Rybalka, O.I., Leonov, O.Yu., Tverdokhlib, O.V. & Bohuslavs'kyj, R.L. (2013). Characteristics of Triticum spelta L. specimens for grain quality indices and electrophoretic spectra of storage proteins. Visn. Ukr. tov-va henetykiv i selektsioneriv, No. 1, pp. 96-105 [in Ukrainian].
12. Tverdokhlib, O.V. & Bohuslavs'kyi, R.V. (2012). Species diversity of wheat, trends and prospects for its use. Zb. nauk. prats' Umans'k. nats. un-tu sadivnytstva, 80, No. 1, pp. 37-47 [in Ukrainian].
13. Ergashev, A. & Munir, K.H. (2007). Leaf area and water regime of wheat in conditions of water supply and drought. Izvestiya AN Resp. Tadzhikistan, No. 3 (160), pp. 25-31 [in Russian].
14. Bengough, A.G., McKenzie, B.M., Hallett, P.D. & Valentine, T.A. (2011). Root Elongation, Water Stress, and Mechanical Impedance: A Review of Limiting Stresses and Beneficial Root Tip Traits. J. Exp. Bot., 62, pp. 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq350
15. Campbell, K.G. (1997). Spelt: agronomy, genetics, and breeding. Plant Breeding Rev., No. 15, pp. 187-213. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470650097.ch6
16. Galova, Z. & Knoblochova, H. (2001). Biochemical characteristics of five spelt wheat cultivars (Triticum spelta L.). Acta fytotechnica et zootechnica, 4, pp. 85-87.
17. Gewin, V. (2010). Food: An Underground Revolution. Nature, 466, pp. 552-553. https://doi.org/10.1038/466552a
18. Hsiao, T.C. & Xu, L. (2000). Sensitivity of growth of roots versus leaves to water stress: biophysical analysis and relation to water transport. J. Exp. Bot., 51, No. 350, pp. 1595-1616. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/51.350.1595
19. Johnson, W.C., Jackson, L.E., Ochoa, O., van Wijk, R., Peleman, J., Clair, D.A.St. & Michelmore, R.W. (2000). Lettuce, a shallow-rooted crop, and Lactuca serriola, its wild progenitor, differ at QTL determining root architecture and deep soil water exploitation Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 101, No. 7, pp. 1066-1073. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001220051581
20. Kosakivska, I.V., Voytenko, L.V., Likhnyovskiy, R.V. & Ustinova, A.Y. (2014). Effect of temperature on accumulation of abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in Triticum aestivum L. seedlings. Genetics and Plant Physiol., 4, No. 3-4, pp. 201-208 [in English].
21. Kosakivska, I.V., Voytenko, L.V. & Likhnyovskiy, R.V. (2015). Effect of temperature on Triticum aestivum L. seedlings growth and phytohormone balance. J. of Stress Physiol. & Biochem., 11, No. 4, pp. 91-99.
22. Luan, S. (2002). Signaling Drought in Guard Cells. Plant Cell Environ., 25, pp. 229-237. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00758.x
23. Morgan, J.M. (2000). Increases in grain yield of wheat by breeding for an osmoregulation gene: relationship to water supply and evaporative demand. Austral. J. of Agricult. Research., 51 (8), pp. 971-978. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR00062
24. Morgan, J.M. (1992). Adaptation to water deficits in three grain legume species. Mechanisms of turgor maintenance. Field Crops Research., 29, No. 2, pp. 91-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(92)90080-S
25. Munns, R., Brady, C.J. & Barlow, E.W.R. (1979). Solute accumulation in the apex and leaves of wheat during water stress. Austral. J. Plant Physiol., 6, pp. 379-389. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP9790379
26. Peret, B., Larrieu, A. & Bennett, M.J. (2011). Lateral Root Emergence: A Difficult Birth. J. Exp. Bot., 62, pp. 59-68.
27. Sadras, V.O., Villalobos, F.J., Fereres, E. & Wolf, D.W. (1993). Leaf responses to soil water deficits: Comparative sensitivity of leaf expansion rate and leaf conductance in field-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Plant Soil., 153, No. 2, pp. 189-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00012991
28. Schmitz, K. (2006). Dinkel — ein Getreide mit Zukunft. Backmittelinstitut aktuell Sonderausgabe, pp. 1-8.
29. Secchi, F. & Zwieniecki, M.A. (2010). Patterns of PIP Gene Expression in Populus trichocarpa during Recovery from Xylem Embolism Suggest a Major Role for the PIP1 Aquaporin Subfamily as Moderators of Refilling Process. Plant Cell Environ., 33, pp. 1285-1297. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2010.02147.x
30. Serraj, R. & Sinclair, T.R. (2002). Osmolyte Accumulation: Can It Really Help Increase Crop Yield under Drought Conditions? Plant Cell Environ., 25, pp. 333-341. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00754.x
31. Sobrado, M.A. (2007). Relationship of Water Transport to Anatomical Features in the Mangrove Laguncularia race mosa Grown under Contrasting Salinities. New Phytol., 173, pp. 584-591. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01927.x
32. Talame, V., Sanguineti, M.C., Chiapparino, E., Bahri, H., Ben Salem, M., Forster, B.P., Ellis, R.P., Rhouma, S., Zoumarou, W., Waugh, R. & Tuberosa, R. (2004). Identification of Hordeum spontaneum QTL alleles improving field performance of barley grown under rainfed conditions. Ann. Appl. Biol., 144, No. 3, pp. 309-319. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2004.tb00346.x
33. Waines, J.W. & Endaie, B. (2007). Domestication and Crop Physiology: Roots of Green Revolution Wheat. Ann. Bot., 100, pp. 991-998. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcm180
34. Wiegers, B.S., Cheer, A.Y. & Silk, W.K. (2009). Modeling the Hydraulics of Root Growth in Three Dimensions with Phloem Water Sources. Plant Physiol., 150, pp. 2092-2103. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.138198