This paper present researches of callusogenesis specificity and cell differentiation of resistant (RP) and non-resistant (NRP) forms to horse-chestnut leaf miner (HCLM) of Aesculus hippocastanum according peculiarities of plant tissue primary and secondary metabolism. The most active callusogenesis was observed on DKW medium, with the addition of 0.5 mg/L kinetin and 3.0 mg/L 2,4-D. Structurally, three areas in calluses of RP and NRP forms could be recognized. The superficial part (area III) of callus in RP form was formed by cells filled with condensed tannins, with thick cell walls. A layer of parenchyma with thin cell walls underlined the outer layer of callus (area II). Numerous tracheate elements, capable of accelerated transportation of nutrients into tissues supporting cellular nutrition and differentiation, were formed among them. The internal area (area I) consisted of parenchymal cells. Many of them had in protoplasts the amorphous structures with polysaccharide and tannin complexes. The lignification of the parenchyma cell walls in callus tissues occurred under increasing of anionic peroxidases activity. This rate was five or more times higher than for the NRP form. Concerning to the RP form of Aesculus hippocastanum the viscosity of leaf cell juice may be the key factor limiting HCLM larval development. The amount of phenols in the leaves is not related with it. The kinematic viscosity of the RP form leaves (1,889 mm2/s) was 1.53 times higher than that of NRP form (1.214 mm2/s). In contrast, the content of phenolic substances was twice higher in the NRP form. The confirmed metabolic specificity of RP form can be explained by the relatively richer quantitative and qualitative composition of free amino acids in its tissues, compared to the NRP form. In general, the metabolism specificity of RP form callus tissues is a convenient model for studying the mechanisms of resistance against pathogens and pests of common horse chestnut.
Keywords: Aesculus hippocastanum L., common horse chestnut, callus, cells, regeneration, morphogenesis
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