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Физиология растений и генетика 2019, том 51, № 1, 28-54, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2019.01.028

Антиоксидантная система и устойчивость растений к недостатку влаги

Колупаев Ю.Е.1,2, Кокорев А.И.1

  1. Харьковский национальный аграрный университет им. В.В. Докучаева  62483 Харьков, п/о Докучаевское-2
  2. Харьковский национальный университет им. В.Н. Каразина  61022 Харьков, пл. Свободы, 4

Засуха является одним из основных факторов среды, лимитирующих рост и продуктивность растений. В обзоре проанализированы причины усиления генерации активных форм кислорода (АФК) при засухе в хлоропластах, митохондриях, пероксисомах и клеточных стенках. Рассмотрено значение НАДФН-оксидазы, внеклеточной пероксидазы и супероксиддисмутазы в образовании сигнального пула АФК в условиях осмотического стресса и индуцировании защитных реакций растений. Приведены характеристики компо­нентов антиоксидантной системы. Оценен вклад основных антиоксидантных ферментов и низкомолекулярных антиоксидантов в поддержание редокс-го­меостаза при засухе. Особое внимание уделено роли пролина и других сов­местимых осмолитов в антиоксидантной защите растений. Проанализировано функциональное взаимодействие антиоксидантных ферментов, низкомолекулярных антиоксидантов и осмолитов с антиоксидантными свойствами в условиях засухи. Рассмотрена возможность повышения устойчивости растений к недостатку влаги при помощи экзогенных антиоксидантов, праймингом с использованием сигнальных молекул и стрессовых фитогормонов, а также путем трансформации генами антиоксидантных ферментов либо энзимов, задействованных в регуляции содержания низкомоле­кулярных протекторов. Указано, что прогресс в исследовании антиоксидантной системы станет более динамичным при использовании методов анализа антиоксидантов in vivo в определенных клеточных компартментах и реальном времени.

Ключевые слова: засуха, активные формы кислорода, антиоксидантная система, антиоксидантные ферменты, низкомолекулярные антиоксиданты, пролин

Физиология растений и генетика
2019, том 51, № 1, 28-54

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