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Физиология растений и генетика 2019, том 51, № 5, 371-387, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2019.05.371

Нитратредуктаза и ее роль в бобово-ризобиальном симбиозе

Коць С.Я., Михалкив Л.М.

  • Институт физиологии растений и генетики Национальной академии наук Украины, Киев

Представлен обзор отечественной и зарубежной литературы относительно строения нитратредуктазы, ее локализации и функционирования, в частности в бобово-ризобиальных симбиотических системах. Освещены вопросы, посвященные регуляции синтеза и активности данного фермента, показана их обусловленность факторами внешней среды и возможность снижения ингибирующего действия последних при использовании определенных приемов. Указано, что в корневых клубеньках бобовых, формирующихся в результате взаимодействия растений и ризобий, происходят процессы восстановления нитратного и молекулярного азота, в которых принима­ют участие соответственно нитратредуктаза и нитрогеназа. При наличии в симбиозе бобовое растение—клубеньковые бактерии активной системы фиксации атмосферного азота нитратредуктаза может по-разному взаимодействовать с нитрогеназой в зависимости от локализации и типа фермента, генетических особенностей симбионтов, условий культивирования бобовых. Рассмотрены гипотезы о возможных механизмах взаимодействия обоих ферментов, представлены данные о распределении нитратредуктазной активности в разных зонах клубенька. Раскрыта роль нитратредуктазы в азотном питании и формировании урожая растений. Отдельно ос­вещено значение монооксида азота для растений и участие нитратредуктазы в его синтезе. Очерчены возможные пути оптимизации функционирования нитратредуктазы с целью повышения эффективности симбиоза и продуктивности растений.

Ключевые слова: нитратредуктаза, нитрогеназа, азотное питание растений, бобово-ризобиальный симбиоз, клубеньки, нитраты, монооксид азота, продуктивность

Физиология растений и генетика
2019, том 51, № 5, 371-387

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